Osteoarthritis

Authors: Deluke AM, Allen DA, Wilson ER, Lineberger JA, Lehenbauer TW, Fabiani M, Poteet BA.
Journal: Can Vet J

Radiographic osteoarthritis scores were determined in 60 dogs up to 3 years following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy. Radiographs taken immediately following surgery and at long-term follow-up 1 to 3 years later were evaluated by 2 certified radiologists using a modified 32-point osteoarthritis scale. Changes in osteoarthritis scores were evaluated by paired t-tests and regression analysis. Sub-groups of dogs were formed to evaluate if osteoarthritis scores changed differently for follow-up periods of < 24 months compared with those > 24 months.

Authors: Ondreka N, Amort KH, Stock KF, Tellhelm B, Klumpp SW, Kramer M, Schmidt MJ.
Journal: Vet J

The aim of this study was to identify skeletal variations in the lumbosacral junction (LSJ) of the German shepherd dog (GSD) compared with other large breeds. The radiographic traits of the LSJ were investigated in a group of 733 GSDs and a control group of 334 dogs of other breeds that were matched in terms of size. Nine morphological and 17 morphometric traits were recorded and analysed. Furthermore, the possibility of a genetic basis for these radiographic features was evaluated by calculation of genetic variance components.

Authors: Ellenberger S, Snyder C.
Journal: JAAHA

A 3 mo old female Airedale terrier presented with decreased range of motion of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), which was first recognized at weaning. Computed tomography (CT) revealed abnormal, bilateral ossification of the soft tissues extending from the region of the tympanic bullae to the medial aspect of the angular process of each mandible. Those ossified structures most closely approximated the location of the lateral pterygoid muscles. The ossified structures were present at presentation and initially manifested as complete ossification on the right side.

Authors: Zhang N, Dietrich MA, Lopez MJ.
Journal: Vet Surg

OBJECTIVE:
To identify the optimum intra-articular multipotent stromal cell (MSC) tissue source in the canine stifle.
STUDY DESIGN:
Experimental.
SAMPLE POPULATION:
Infrapatellar adipose tissue, synovium lining the joint capsule, and synovium surrounding the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) from normal stifles of 6 dogs.
METHODS:

Authors: Garner BC, Kuroki K, Stoker AM, Cook CR, Cook JL.
Journal: AJVR

Objective-To identify proteins with differential expression between healthy dogs and dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis secondary to cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease. Sample-Serum and synovial fluid samples obtained from dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis before (n = 10) and after (8) surgery and control dogs without osteoarthritis (9) and archived synovial membrane and articular cartilage samples obtained from dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis (5) and dogs without arthritis (5).

Authors: Benito J, Gruen ME, Thomson A, Simpson W, Lascelles BD.
Journal: J Fel Med Surg

This study evaluated the types of items owners consider important to their cats' quality of life (QoL). We hypothesized that items contributing to QoL in cats are predominantly items requiring mobility.

Authors: Giorgi M, Meizler A, Mills PC.
Journal: Vet J

Tapentadol (TAP) is a novel opioid pain reliever drug with a dual mechanism of action (mu opioid receptor agonist and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor). It is used as an analgesic in humans, but could be of interest for veterinary species if it has a suitable pharmacokinetic profile. Six dogs were randomly assigned to two treatment groups, using an open, single-dose, two-treatment, two-period, and randomised cross-over design. Each subject received TAP at 50 and 200mg by intravenous (IV) and oral route, respectively, with a 1-week wash-out period between administrations.

Authors: Arzi B, Cissell DD, Verstraete FJ, Kass PH, Duraine GD, Athanasiou KA.
Journal: JAVMA

Objective-To describe CT findings in dogs and cats with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. Design-Retrospective case series. Animals-41 dogs and 17 cats. Procedures-Medical records and CT images of the skull were reviewed for dogs and cats that were examined at a dentistry and oral surgery specialty practice between 2006 and 2011. Results-Of 142 dogs and 42 cats evaluated, 41 dogs and 17 cats had CT findings consistent with a TMJ disorder.

Authors: Nishida H, Shoji Y, Nakamura M, Hatoya S, Sugiura K, Yamate J, Kuwamura M, Kotani T, Nakayama M, Suzuki Y, Ide C, Inaba T.
Journal: AJVR

Objective-To compare methods for harvesting canine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and determine the biological properties of canine BMSCs at successive passages in vitro. Sample-BMSCs collected from the femurs of 9 Beagles. Procedures-A fibroblast assay was performed to compare 2 methods for harvesting BMSCs: the aspiration and perfusion method. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to evaluate the cell surface markers. Changes in proliferative activity were analyzed by examining radioactivity of hydrogen 3-thymidine.

Authors: Gutbrod A, Guerrero TG.
Journal: Vet Surg

OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate the effect of 15° external rotational humeral osteotomy (ERHO) on canine elbow joint contact mechanics.
STUDY DESIGN:
Ex vivo biomechanical study.
SAMPLE POPULATION:
Unpaired cadaveric canine thoracic limbs (n = 8)
METHODS: