Osteoarthritis

Authors: Dycus DL, Au AY, Grzanna MW, Wardlaw JL, Frondoza CG.
Journal: AJVR

Objective-To determine whether oxidative stress could be induced in canine chondrocytes in vitro. Sample-Chondrocytes obtained from healthy adult mixed-breed dogs. Procedures-Harvested chondrocytes were maintained at 37°C with 5% CO2 for 24 hours. To assess induction of oxidative stress, 2 stimuli were used: hydrogen peroxide and a combination of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). To determine the effect of hydrogen peroxide, a set of chondrocyte-seeded plates was incubated with control medium alone or hydrogen peroxide (100, 200, or 300μM) for 24 hours.

Authors: de Oliveira El-Warrak A, Rouma M, Amoroso A, Boysen SR, Chorfi Y.
Journal: Can Vet J

This study compared vitamin A, vitamin E, selenium (Se), and L-lactate in blood and synovial fluid in 2 groups of 6 dogs; a control group (without OA) and an osteoarthritic group with spontaneous cranial cruciate ligament rupture and OA. Concentrations of vitamin E were significantly higher in serum than in synovial fluid in both OA (P = 0.006) and control (P = 0.0008) groups. Vitamin E concentration in synovial fluid was significantly higher in the OA group than in the control group (P = 0.009).

Authors: Guillot M, Moreau M, Heit M, Martel-Pelletier J, Pelletier JP, Troncy E.
Journal: Vet J

This study aimed to characterize osteoarthritis (OA)-related chronic pain and disability in experimental cats with naturally occurring OA. Peak vertical ground reaction force (PVF), accelerometer-based motor activity (MA) and the von Frey anesthesiometer-induced paw withdrawal threshold were used to define OA and to test the efficacy of meloxicam. A diagnosis of OA was based on radiographic and orthopedic examinations.

Authors: Benito J, Depuy V, Hardie E, Zamprogno H, Thomson A, Simpson W, Roe S, Hansen B, Lascelles BD.
Journal: Vet J

The objective of this study was to test the readability, reliability, repeatability and discriminatory ability of an owner-completed instrument to assess feline degenerative joint disease (DJD)-associated pain (feline musculoskeletal pain index, FMPI). Readability was explored using four different formulas (Flesch, Fry, SMOG and FOG) and the final FMPI instrument was produced. To assess the instrument, client-owned cats that were defined as normal (normal group) or as having DJD-associated pain and mobility impairment (pain-DJD group) were recruited.

Authors: Aiken MJ, Stewart JE, Anderson AA.
Journal: JSAP

An eight-year-old male neutered Staffordshire bull terrier was presented for investigation of right forelimb lameness of 14 months' duration. Radiography showed mottled osteolysis of the right radial carpal bone. Histopathology of the bone demonstrated replacement of healthy bone with granulation tissue suggestive of ischaemic necrosis. Lameness resolved following pancarpal arthrodesis. In humans, Preiser's disease is a condition in which idiopathic ischaemic necrosis of the scaphoid bone, the equivalent of the canine radial carpal bone, occurs.

Authors: Aiken MJ, Stewart JE, Anderson AA.
Journal: JSAP

An eight-year-old male neutered Staffordshire bull terrier was presented for investigation of right forelimb lameness of 14 months' duration. Radiography showed mottled osteolysis of the right radial carpal bone. Histopathology of the bone demonstrated replacement of healthy bone with granulation tissue suggestive of ischaemic necrosis. Lameness resolved following pancarpal arthrodesis. In humans, Preiser's disease is a condition in which idiopathic ischaemic necrosis of the scaphoid bone, the equivalent of the canine radial carpal bone, occurs.

Authors: Burton NJ, Miles AW, Pollintine P.
Journal: VCOT

Objectives: To describe a novel canine castless partial carpal arthrodesis plate (par-CA) and its ex vivo biomechanical comparison with T-plate and cross pinning techniques for canine partial carpal arthrodesis. Methods: The three implant systems were applied to three cohorts of six forelimbs from Greyhounds euthanatized for reasons unrelated to the study. Intercarpal and carpometacarpal palmar fibrocartilage and ligaments were sectioned.

Authors: Greene LM, Marcellin-Little DJ, Lascelles BD.
Journal: JAVMA

Objective-To evaluate factors associated with lameness severity and hip joint range of motion in dogs with hip dysplasia and to assess the association between hip joint range of motion and degree of lameness. Design-Prospective case series. Animals-60 client-owned Labrador Retrievers with hip dysplasia. Procedures-Owners completed a questionnaire regarding their dogs' daily exercise duration and type (ie, low impact vs high impact) and lifestyle. Range of motion of affected hip joints was measured with a transparent plastic goniometer.

Authors: Brady RB, Sidiropoulos AN, Bennett HJ, Rider PM, Marcellin-Little DJ, Devita P.
Journal: AJVR

Objective-To assess differences in sagittal plane joint kinematics and ground reaction forces between lean and obese adult dogs of similar sizes at 2 trotting velocities. Animals-16 adult dogs. Procedures-Dogs with body condition score (BCS) of 8 or 9 (obese dogs; n = 8) and dogs with BCS of 4 or 5 (lean dogs; 8) on a 9-point scale were evaluated. Sagittal plane joint kinematic and ground reaction force data were obtained from dogs trotting at 1.8 and 2.5 m/s with a 3-D motion capture system, a force platform, and 12 infrared markers placed on bony landmarks.

Authors: Gao X, Lee J, Malladi S, Melendez L, Lascelles BD, Al-Murrani S.
Journal: J Feline Med Surg

The underlying disease mechanisms for feline degenerative joint disease (DJD) are mostly unidentified. Today, most of what is published on mammalian arthritis is based on human clinical findings or on mammalian models of human arthritis. However, DJD is a common occurrence in the millions of domestic felines worldwide.