Osteoarthritis

Authors: Lemetayer J1, Taylor S2.
Journal: J Feline Med Surg

PRACTICAL RELEVANCE:

Osteoarthritis, a degenerative non-inflammatory joint disease, is common in cats, usually causing gradual changes in behavior and lifestyle rather than severe lameness. Inflammatory arthritis occurs much less frequently and is nearly always associated with debilitating lameness. It may have an infectious or immune-mediated cause - but, unlike the canine disease, is much more likely to be infectious in origin.

CLINICAL CHALLENGES:

Authors: Mariee IC1, Gröne A2, Theyse LF3.
Journal: Vet J

Coronoid dysplasia (CD) or medial coronoid disease is part of canine elbow dysplasia and eventually results in osteoarthrosis. Although CD was originally attributed to disturbed endochondral ossification, more recent data point to the subchondral bone. The objective of this study was to assess dysplastic bone and cartilage of dogs that underwent unilateral or bilateral arthroscopic subtotal coronoidectomy for the treatment of CD. Arthroscopic findings and histopathology of bone and cartilage removed from elbow joints with CD were compared.

Authors: Soto N1, Fauber AE, Ko JC, Moore GE, Lambrechts NE.
Journal: J Am Vet Med Assoc

Objective-To compare the analgesic effects of intra-articularly administered saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, morphine, dexmedetomidine, and a morphine-dexmedetomidine combination in dogs undergoing stifle joint surgery for cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Design-Randomized, controlled, clinical trial. Animals-44 dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture that underwent tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) or tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO).

Authors: Sparrow T, Fitzpatrick N1, Meswania J, Blunn G.
Journal: Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol

Introduction: Partial resurfacing of the humeral head has been reported in humans to treat humeral osteochondritis dissecans. The aim is to describe a custom-made humeral resurfacing prosthesis for treatment of severe humeral head osteochondritis disse-cans in a dog. Case report: A seven-month-old female entire St. Bernard dog was presented with a 10 week history of severe left thoracic limb lameness. Radiography, arthroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed an extensive osteochondritis dissecans lesion affecting the caudal, medial and central regions of the humeral head.

Authors: Boland L1, Danger R, Cabon Q, Rabillard M, Brouard S, Bouvy B, Gauthier O.
Journal: Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol

Objectives: To measure the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9 in synovial fluid from the stifle joints of dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture and to compare that to values from contralateral stifle joints and dogs with clinically normal stifle joints. Additionally, the C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were also measured. Methods: Fourteen large breed dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture and 11 large breed normal dogs were included in this prospective clinical study.

Authors: Macfarlane PD1, Tute AS, Alderson B.
Journal: JSAP

Chronic pain is a widely recognised problem in humans and is being increasingly recognised as a significant problem in dogs. Whilst a large number of therapies are described and utilised to treat chronic pain in dogs, there is a severe shortage of evidence to guide practitioners in selection of treatments. Until more evidence becomes available, practitioners should adopt a cautious approach, utilising licensed treatments first when possible. Non-pharmacological therapies should be incorporated into the chronic pain management plan whenever possible.

Authors: Sul RM, Chase D, Parkin T, Bennett D.
Journal: VCOT

Objective: To compare the efficacy of meloxicam and a glucosamine-chondroitin (Glu-Ch) supplement in the management of feline osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: Prospective, blinded, randomized clinical trial. Cats over eight years of age with clinical signs of chronic OA were assigned to one of two groups and Glu-Ch or meloxicam was administered orally for 70 days, followed by a placebo until day 98. Cats were assessed by a veterinarian on five occasions and the owner completed an assessment form at the same time. Results: Data were collected from thirty cats.

Authors: Barnes DC, Knudsen CS, Gosling M, McKee M, Whitelock RG, Arthurs GI, Ness MG, Radke H, Langley-Hobbs SJ
Journal: VCOT

Objective: To compare complication rates and the outcomes of these complications after lateral plate fixation with figure-of-eight tension-band-wire and pin or lag screw fixation for arthrodesis of the calcaneo-quartal joint, following non-traumatic disruption of the plantar tarsal ligament in dogs. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from five UK referral centres. Diplomate specialists and their residents performed all procedures. Referring veterinarians were contacted for long-term follow-up. Results: Seventy-four procedures were undertaken in 61 dogs.

Authors: Fahie MA, Ortolano GA, Guercio V, Schaffer JA, Johnston G, Au J, Hettlich BA, Phillips T, Allen MJ, Bertone AL.
Journal: JAVMA

Objective-To determine efficacy of a single intra-articular injection of an autologous platelet concentrate for treatment of osteoarthritis in dogs. Design-Randomized, controlled, 2-center clinical trial. Animals-20 client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis involving a single joint. Procedures-Dogs were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. In all dogs, severity of lameness and pain was scored by owners with the Hudson visual analog scale and the University of Pennsylvania Canine Brief Pain Inventory, respectively, and peak vertical force (PVF) was determined with a force platform.