Osteoarthritis

Authors: Nishida H, Shoji Y, Nakamura M, Hatoya S, Sugiura K, Yamate J, Kuwamura M, Kotani T, Nakayama M, Suzuki Y, Ide C, Inaba T.
Journal: AJVR

Objective-To compare methods for harvesting canine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and determine the biological properties of canine BMSCs at successive passages in vitro. Sample-BMSCs collected from the femurs of 9 Beagles. Procedures-A fibroblast assay was performed to compare 2 methods for harvesting BMSCs: the aspiration and perfusion method. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to evaluate the cell surface markers. Changes in proliferative activity were analyzed by examining radioactivity of hydrogen 3-thymidine.

Authors: Gutbrod A, Guerrero TG.
Journal: Vet Surg

OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate the effect of 15° external rotational humeral osteotomy (ERHO) on canine elbow joint contact mechanics.
STUDY DESIGN:
Ex vivo biomechanical study.
SAMPLE POPULATION:
Unpaired cadaveric canine thoracic limbs (n = 8)
METHODS:

Authors: Hyytiäinen HK, Mölsä SH, Junnila JT, Laitinen-Vapaavuori OM, Hielm-Björkman A.
Journal: VCOT

Objective: The study assessed the use and reliability of bathroom scales as an objective measurement tool, and setting a normal variance of static weight bearing between hindlimbs. Methods: Two groups of dogs were tested: a healthy control group (n = 21) and a group (n = 43) of dogs with confirmed osteoarthritis in at least one stifle joint, with or without hip joint osteoarthritis. Static weight bearing was evaluated manually and measured with two bathroom scales. An orthopaedic examination was done and dynamic weight bearing was measured using a force platform.

Authors: de Bakker E, Saunders J, Gielen I, van Bree H, Coppieters E, Van Ryssen B.
Journal: VCOT

Objectives: To determine the frequency and radiographic aspect of medial humeral epicondylar lesions as a primary or concomitant finding and to evaluate the association with osteoarthritis. Methods: Medical records of dogs diagnosed with elbow lameness were reviewed. Inclusion criteria for this study were a complete clinical examination, a complete set of digital radiographs and a final diagnosis made by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy.

Authors: Allen MJ.
Journal: JSAP

Total joint replacement is now considered a routine surgical option for small animals with advanced joint disease. This review highlights the current state of the art in total hip, elbow and knee replacement in small animals, as well as the potential for application to other joints such as the intervertebral discs, hock and shoulder. Advances in cementless fixation, the use of less-invasive, bone-sparing procedures, and the development of custom implant options for revision surgery and oncologic reconstruction will be discussed.

Authors: Clarke SP, Ferguson JF.
Journal: JSAP

An eight-year old, Rottweiler was presented with a chronic non-weight bearing right pelvic limb -lameness and a discharging sinus at the right stifle joint. Fifteen weeks previously a diagnosis of bacterial infective arthritis had been made, presumed attributable to haematogenous spread. Failure to respond to appropriate surgical and medical management resulted in severe joint dysfunction. The poor prognosis for restoration of limb function resulted in limb amputation. Subsequent exploration of the sinus tract and the stifle joint revealed a stick within the craniolateral aspect of the joint.

Authors: Mazaki-Tovi M, Abood SK, Schenck PA.
Journal: AJVR

Objective-To determine associations between serum concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids or body condition and serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, or triglyceride in healthy dogs. Animals-62 healthy adult client-owned dogs. Procedures-Body condition score and percentage of body fat were determined. Blood samples were collected after food was withheld for 12 hours. Serum was harvested for total lipid determination, fatty acid analysis, and measurement of serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, and triglyceride.

Authors: Kisiel AH, McDuffee LA, Masaoud E, Bailey TR, Esparza Gonzalez BP, Nino-Fong R.
Journal: AJVR

Objective-To isolate and characterize mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from canine muscle and periosteum and compare proliferative capacities of bone marrow-, adipose tissue-, muscle-, and periosteum-derived MSCs (BMSCs, AMSCs, MMSCs, and PMSCs, respectively). Sample-7 canine cadavers. Procedures-MSCs were characterized on the basis of morphology, immunofluorescence of MSC-associated cell surface markers, and expression of pluripotency-associated transcription factors.

Authors: El-Hadi M, Charavaryamath C, Aebischer A, Smith CW, Shmon C, Singh B.
Journal: Can J Vet Res

This cross-sectional clinical study compared inflammation, including expression of the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), in the stifle joints of 4 control dogs and 23 dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR). The CCL, synovial membrane, meniscus, cartilage, and synovial fluid from the affected stifle joints of all the dogs were examined. Inflammatory cell counts were performed on the synovial fluid, and the tissues were processed for histologic study and immunohistochemical detection of IL-8 and ICAM-1.