Elbow

Authors: Lau SF, Hazewinkel HA, Grinwis GC, Wolschrijn CF, Siebelt M, Vernooij JC, Voorhout G, Tryfonidou MA.
Journal: Vet J

Medial coronoid disease (MCD) is a common joint disease of dogs. It has a multifactorial aetiology, but the relationship between known causal factors and the disease has yet to be elucidated. As most of the published literature is clinical and it reports changes associated with advanced disease, it is not known whether the changes reflect the cause or consequences of the condition. The aim of this study was to investigate early micromorphological changes occurring in articular cartilage and to describe the postnatal development of the medial coronoid process (MCP) before MCD develops.

Category: Elbow
Authors: de Bakker E, Samoy Y, Coppieters E, Mosselmans L, Van Ryssen B.
Journal: VCOT

Objectives: To investigate the possibilities and limitations of arthroscopy to detect flexor enthesopathy in dogs and to distinguish the primary from the concomitant form. Materials and methods: Fifty dogs (n = 94 elbow joints) were prospectively studied: dogs with primary flexor enthesopathy (n = 29), concomitant flexor enthesopathy (n = 36), elbow dysplasia (n = 18), and normal elbow joints (n = 11). All dogs underwent an arthroscopic examination of one or both elbow joints.

Authors: de Bakker E, Peremans K, Vermeire S, Vandermeulen E, Dobbeleir A, Dik KJ, Gielen I, Saunders JH, Van Ryssen B
Journal: VCOT

Objective: To investigate the possibilities and limitations of planar bone scintigraphy and high resolution single photon emission computed tomography (HiSPECT) to diagnose flexor enthesopathy and to distinguish primary flexor enthesopathy from the concomitant form. Materials and methods: A prospective study of 46 dogs with primary flexor enthesopathy, concomitant flexor enthesopathy, medial coronoid disease, and normal elbows was performed. All dogs underwent planar bone scintigraphy and HiSPECT imaging.

Authors: Spinella G, Loprete G, Musella V, Britti D, Vilar JM.
Journal: VCOT

The aim of this study was to describe the cross-sectional area and mean echogenicity of the main tendons of the shoulder and elbow joints in adult German Shepherd dogs and to determine the effects of sex, weight, and age on these parameters. No previous publications in the veterinary literature have reported information regarding quantitative ultrasonographic tendon measurements in dogs. Thirty German Shepherd dogs were examined: 13 males and 17 females.

Authors: Smith ZF, Wendelburg KL, Tepic S, Stover SM, Garcia-Nolen T, Stearns PB, Hayashi K.
Journal: VCOT

Elbow dysplasia, primarily affecting the medial compartment, is the most common cause of lameness in the thoracic limb. Elbow arthroplasty is an option for end stage or severely affected patients. The purpose of this study was to compare ex vivo axial load to failure of an implanted novel elbow arthroplasty system to control limbs. The partial arthroplasty is a medial compartmental, unconstrained system, intended to allow conversion to total arthroplasty. We hypothesized that there would not be any significant difference between implanted and controlled limbs when loaded to failure.

Authors: Fitzpatrick N, Caron A, Solano MA.
Journal: Vet Surg

OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate radioulnar joint modification using computed tomography (CT) after bi-oblique dynamic proximal ulnar osteotomy (BODPUO).
STUDY DESIGN:
Clinical study.
ANIMALS:
Dogs (n = 18, 26 elbows) with elbow incongruence treated by a single surgeon with BODPUO.
METHODS:
Radioulnar space measurements were performed on transverse, frontal, and sagittal CT projections preoperatively and after radiographically determined osteotomy healing.
RESULTS:

Category: Elbow
Authors: Maddox TW, May C, Keeley BJ, McConnell JF.
Journal: Vet Radiol Ultrasound

Computed tomography (CT) is an established technique for detecting shoulder lesions in dogs, however the clinical significance of shoulder CT lesions often remains uncertain. The purposes of this retrospective study were to describe the prevalence of CT lesions in both shoulder joints for 89 dogs presenting with thoracic limb lameness and to compare CT lesions with clinical characteristics. For all included dogs, results of a full orthopedic examination, other diagnostic tests, and signalment data were available in medical records.

Authors: Debruyn K, Peremans K, Vandermeulen E, Van Ryssen B, Saunders JH.
Journal: Vet J

Scintigraphy is an extremely sensitive tool for the detection of early changes in bone metabolism. Sixty-eight lame dogs underwent a scintigraphic examination. For each elbow lateromedial (LM), caudomedial (CdM) flexed and caudomedial (CdM) extended scintigraphic views were obtained. Semi-quantitative analysis was performed to determine radiopharmaceutical uptake at the medial coronoid process (MCP) and at the attachment of the flexor muscles at the medial humeral epicondyle, normalised to activity registered in either the total elbow joint or the radius/ulna.

Category: Elbow - Imaging
Authors: Eljack H, Werner H, Böttcher P.
Journal: Vet Surg

OBJECTIVE:
To determine the sensitivity and specificity of estimation of radioulnar incongruence (RUI) by use of 3-dimensional (3D) image renderings in combination with a sphere fitted to the ulnar trochlear notch.
STUDY DESIGN:
In vitro study.
SAMPLE POPULATION:
Right forelimbs (n = 8) of canine cadavers weighing >20 kg.
METHODS:

Category: Elbow - Imaging
Authors: Rose ND, Freeman A, Conzemius MG.
Journal: Vet Surg

OBJECTIVE:
To measure the loads required to induce lateral luxation of the Iowa State University (ISU) elbow implant, a modified elbow implant, and the normal canine elbow with the ligaments and joint capsule removed.
STUDY DESIGN:
Mechanical testing on cadaveric specimens
SAMPLE POPULATION:
Twelve thoracic limbs were harvested from adult, medium sized dogs that had been euthanatized for reasons unrelated to the study.
METHODS: