Elbow

Authors: Moores AP1, Tivers MS, Grierson J.
Journal: Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol

Objective: To report the use of a 4.5 mm shaft screw for the management of humeral condylar fractures (HCF) and incomplete ossification of the humeral condyle (IOHC) in dogs, and to assess risk factors for complications. Methods: Dogs with HCF or IOHC that were managed with a 4.5 mm shaft screw with a minimum follow-up of six months from surgery were included. Data from the case records were used to identify risk factors for complications. Long-term follow-up was provided by an owner questionnaire and veterinary re-examination.

Authors: Hurt RJ1, Syrcle JA, Elder S, McLaughlin R.
Journal: Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol

Objective: To compare the in vitro biomechanical performance of two String-of-Pearls (SOP) plate constructs in a canine distal humeral metaphyseal gap model. Methods: Seven pairs of canine cadaveric humeri, including the elbow joints, were prepared. One group consisted of a unilateral medially placed SOP plate with bicortical screws (UNI). The second group consisted of bilateral caudo-medial and caudo-lateral SOP plates applied with monocortical screws (BI). A 2 cm ostectomy was performed immediately proximal to the supratrochlear foramen.

Authors: Wood MC1, Fox DB, Tomlinson JL.
Journal: Vet Surg

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To describe a radiographic method for determination of the mechanical axes and joint orientation lines in orthogonal planes for the canine humerus and establish a range of normal joint orientation angles in a population of large breed dogs.

STUDY DESIGN:

Radiographic study.

SAMPLE POPULATION:

Humeri (n = 50) of skeletally mature, nonchondrodystrophic canine cadavers, weighing 20-40 kg with no evidence of orthopedic disease.

METHODS:

Authors: Farrell M1, Heller J, Solano M, Fitzpatrick N, Sparrow T, Kowaleski M.
Journal: Vet Surg

OBJECTIVE:
To compare radiographic elbow arthrosis with arthroscopic cartilage pathology in Labrador retrievers with elbow osteoarthritis secondary to medial coronoid process (MCP) disease.
STUDY DESIGN:
Retrospective epidemiological study.
ANIMALS:
Labrador retrievers (n = 317; 592 elbow joints).
METHODS:

Category: Arthroscopy - Elbow - Imaging
Authors: Perry KL, Li L.
Journal: VCOT

Arthroscopy is the gold standard for articular surface examination and is commonly advocated for diagnosing and treating cases of canine elbow dysplasia. Arthroscopy is generally regarded as a low-risk procedure, however there is a paucity of information in the small animal veterinary literature regarding the associated complication rates. In a retrospective study spanning a ten year period, 750 elective elbow arthroscopies were evaluated. Complications necessitating repeat surgery were defined as major, and were documented in 4.8% of dogs.

Category: Arthroscopy - Elbow
Authors: Coggeshall JD, Reese DJ, Kim SE, Pozzi A.
Journal: JSAP

Four skeletally immature, small breed dogs (five elbows) with elbow incongruency were evaluated for forelimb lameness. Findings on clinical examination included pain, effusion and decreased range of motion of the affected elbow. Radiography, computed tomography and arthroscopy demonstrated elbow incongruency in all dogs. Fragmented medial coronoid process was diagnosed arthroscopically in three dogs (four elbows). Arthroscopic subtotal coronoidectomy was performed in all cases of fragmented medial coronoid process.

Authors: de Bakker E, Gielen I, van Caelenberg A, van Bree H, van Ryssen B.
Journal: Vet Radiol Ultrasound

Flexor enthesopathy is an important differential diagnosis for elbow lameness in dogs. The disorder can be a primary cause of elbow lameness or concomitant with other elbow pathology. Since treatment differs for primary and concomitant forms of flexor enthesopathy, a noninvasive method for distinguishing between them is needed.

Authors: de Bakker E, Gielen I, Kromhout K, van Bree H, Van Ryssen B.
Journal: Vet Radiol Ultrasound

Flexor enthesopathy is a recently recognized elbow disorder in dogs and considered to be an important differential diagnosis for elbow lameness. Primary and concomitant forms of the disease have been previously described and treatments differ for the two forms. The goal of this prospective study was to compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings for dogs with primary flexor enthesopathy (n = 17), concomitant flexor enthesopathy (n = 23), elbow dysplasia alone (n = 13), and normal elbows (n = 7). Each elbow joint underwent MRI using the same low-field scanner.

Authors: de Bakker E, Gielen I, Saunders JH, Polis I, Vermeire S, Peremans K, Dewulf J, van Bree H, Van Ryssen B
Journal: VCOT

Objectives: To report the characteristics of two types of flexor enthesopathy, primary and concomitant, based on different diagnostic techniques. Materials and methods: Over a period of three years a prospective study was performed on dogs admitted for the complaint of elbow lameness. Based on the radiographic findings a selection of dogs underwent a complete series of different imaging modalities. With each technique, pathology of the medial epicondyle and the presence of other elbow disorders were recorded.

Authors: Lau SF, Wolschrijn CF, Siebelt M, Vernooij JC, Voorhout G, Hazewinkel HA.
Journal: Vet J

The aetiopathogenesis of medial coronoid disease (MCD) remains obscure, despite its high prevalence. The role of changes to subchondral bone or articular cartilage is much debated. Although there is evidence of micro-damage to subchondral bone, it is not known whether this is a cause or a consequence of MCD, nor is it known whether articular cartilage is modified in the early stages of the disease.

Category: Elbow - Imaging