The collateral ligaments (CL) of the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) are important structures for DIPJ stability. Collateral ligament injuries must be considered in the differential diagnosis of foot pain. An accurate examination of the CL-DIPJ can be performed with an adequate ultrasonographic technique and equipment. This paper describes the technique and normal ultrasonographic images as reference data for the diagnosis and documentation of CL-DIPJ desmopathies and enthesopathies.
Objectives: Platelet preparations have become a treatment for soft tissue injuries in horses. This study evaluated a novel filter-based system to concentrate platelets and assesses its value in the treatment of suspensory ligament branch desmitis. Methods: Filtered platelet concentrate was prepared from 55 ml of venous blood obtained from 21 normal horses. Platelets and white blood cells in whole blood and filtered platelet concentrate were measured, as was platelet activating factor (PAF)–induced platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) release.
High- and low-field magnetic resonance (MR) imaging systems are available for clinical diagnosis of collateral desmopathy of the equine distal interphalangeal joint (DIJ). Knowledge of the normal appearance, size, shape, and signal variation of these ligaments on high- and low-field MR images is essential when assessing desmopathy detected by MR imaging. However, there are no descriptions of the normal features of DIJ collateral ligaments on images obtained with a standing low-field MR system.
Equine degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis (DSLD) is a debilitating condition that has limited response to rest and stall confinement. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that mild to moderate DSLD is not worsened by consistent exercise. Paso Fino and Peruvian Paso horses (two normal horses and four horses with DSLD) were exercised for 30 min every other day for 8 weeks and then pasture rested for 4 months. Gait analysis, radiographs, ultrasound and serum insulin and glucose concentrations were performed prior to the exercise trial and at each time point.
Reasons for performing the study: Detailed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological appearances of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon (AL-DDFT) have not been documented previously in detail.
Objectives: To: 1) describe anatomical connections between the AL-DDFT and adjacent structures; 2) describe high-field and low-field MRI and histological appearances of the AL-DDFT in the forelimb of horses with no carpal or proximal metacarpal pain; and 3) assess the relationship between age, breed, gender, height, weight and MRI findings.
Objective—To obtain morphometric values for the superficial digital flexor tendon, deep digital flexor tendon, accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor muscle, and suspensory ligament in the palmar metacarpal region of Icelandic Horses.
Animals—50 nonlame Icelandic Horses in training.
Reasons for performing study: Desmopathies of the suspensory ligament are relatively frequent and vary in prevalence over different anatomical regions. This variation may be because of regional differences in tissue characteristics.
Objective: To characterise different regions of healthy forelimb suspensory ligaments (SLs) by means of biochemical, biomechanical and histomorphological techniques.
Hypothesis: There is substantial topographical heterogeneity in the SL with respect to structural, compositional and functional characteristics.
Reasons for performing study: Associations between degree of ossification of the cartilages of the foot and injuries to other structures of the foot have been suggested, but have not been investigated by large scale studies.
Reasons for performing study: There is limited knowledge about the interpretation of alterations in the distal sesamoidean impar ligament (DSIL) detected using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their correlation with histopathology.
Hypotheses: There would be: 1) a correlation between histopathology and MRI findings; and 2) a relationship between MR abnormalities at the origin and the insertion of the DSIL, between insertion and body; and origin and body.
This retrospective study describes ultrasound guided desmotomy of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon in 35 cases, and a modification of this procedure using an adapted surgical instrument. The procedure was successful in 97% of cases. Wound healing was excellent in all except 4 cases. Corrective shoeing prior to surgery contributes to success. The procedure can be performed on the standing horse and offers the advantages of minimally invasive surgery which include: reduced incision length, reduced morbidity and improved cosmetic outcome.