Eight skeletally mature equine cadaver distal forelimbs were imaged using T2-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) sequences in a 1.0 T horizontal bore magnet. Each limb was parallel to the main magnetic field and with 16° angulation of the limb relative to the main magnetic field, which places one of the collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint at or near the magic angle. Each limb was imaged using an echo time (TE) of 80, 100, 120, and 140 ms. Reversal of the magic angle effect was achieved at echo time of 140 ms.
This study describes ultrasound (US) technique and reference images of the equine distal interphalangeal joint collateral ligaments (CLs), and evaluates the portion of the CLs assessable by US in a series of normal forelimbs. Transverse and longitudinal US images were obtained on five healthy horses and on 25 equine cadaver forelimbs. On six limbs, a needle was placed under US-guidance at the distal limit of visualization of each CL, and the portion of CL visible at US was evaluated on computed tomographic (CT) images.
Case Description—3 horses were evaluated because of lameness and swelling of the stifle joint subsequent to trauma.
Clinical Findings—All horses had characteristic clinical signs of stifle joint pain and effusion. A medial patellar fracture and lateral collateral ligament avulsion fracture were visible ultrasonographically in each. Radiography, including standard as well as flexed lateromedial, cranioproximal-craniodistal oblique (skyline patellar), and laterally stressed caudocranial views, revealed similar findings.
The suspensory ligament is difficult to image accurately, partly because it contains ligamentous fibers, as well as noncollagenous adipose and muscle tissue in the normal horse. Our hypothesis was that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging would be more accurate than ultrasonography in identifying the size of the suspensory ligament and the presence and size of noncollagenous tissues within the ligament. Eleven horses were used for ultrasonographic and MR imaging and histologic evaluation of the rear suspensory ligament.
Tendon and ligament injuries continue to be one of the most frequent causes of orthopaedic injury and early retirement in the Thoroughbred racehorse. In the UK, the Horserace Betting Levy Board has invested considerable research funding in the last decade in order to investigate aspects of tendon epidemiology, biology and therapy, in order to decrease both the welfare and economic consequence of such injuries. This review summarises key aspects of this research effort and identifies specific research directions for the future.
Reasons for performing study: Neurectomy of the deep branch of the lateral plantar nerve and plantar fasciotomy have become accepted as methods of treatment of proximal suspensory desmopathy (PSD), but there are limited long-term studies documenting the outcome.
Objectives: To describe long-term follow-up in horses with PSD alone or with other injuries contributing to lameness and poor performance, including complications, following neurectomy and fasciotomy.
There have been no detailed ultrasonographic descriptions of injuries of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon (ALDDFT) in the carpal and proximal metacarpal and tarsal and proximal metatarsal regions. The aims of this study were to describe the: 1) normal ultrasonographic appearance of the proximal aspect of the ALDDFT in fore- and hindlimbs and 2) clinical and ultrasonographic features of proximal injuries of the ALDDFT in both fore- and hindlimbs.
Severe lameness, tarsocrural joint effusion and medially focused peritarsal swelling combined with focal pain on palpation are clinical signs suggestive of acute injury to the medial tarsal collateral ligament. Diagnosis can be made on physical examination and ultrasonographic findings; however, magnetic resonance imaging may provide more information especially with subtle injury. Acute exacerbation of the injury during the prolonged convalescence is common.
Reasons for performing study: Detailed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological appearances of the proximal aspect of the suspensory ligament (PSL) in the forelimb of nonlame horses have not been previously documented.
Ultrasonography is an easy and rewarding technique for the assessment of collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint (CL-DIPJ) desmopathies and enthesopathies. Comparison between ligaments of both feet and oblique incidence improve sensitivity and specificity of the ultrasonographic diagnosis. The main limitation of the procedure is imaging the distal part of the CL-DIPJ and corresponding fossa of the distal phalanx.