Elbow

Authors: Abdelhadi J, Wefstaedt P, Galindo-Zamora V, Anders A, Nolte I, Schilling N.
Journal: AJVR

Objective-To evaluate the load redistribution mechanisms in walking and trotting dogs with induced forelimb lameness. Animals-7 healthy adult Beagles. Procedures-Dogs walked and trotted on an instrumented treadmill to determine control values for peak and mean vertical force as well as verticle impulse for all 4 limbs. A small sphere was attached to the ventral pad of the right forelimb paw to induce a reversible lameness, and recordings were repeated for both gaits. Additionally, footfall patterns were assessed to test for changes in temporal gait variables.

Authors: Gasch EG, Labruyère JJ, Bardet JF.
Journal: VCOT

Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe computed tomography (CT) features of the ununited anconeal process and relate them with the following elbow dysplasia signs: medial coronoid disease, medial humeral condyle changes, osteoarthritis (OA), and radioulnar incongruence. Methods: Computed tomographic images of dogs older than six months with an ununited anconeal process were evaluated (n = 13). Ununited anconeal process features were described as being complete or incomplete, and the degree of displacement, volume, and presence of cysts and sclerosis were also evaluated.

Category: Elbow - Imaging
Authors: Cuddy LC, Lewis DD, Kim SE, Conrad BP, Banks SA, Horodyski M, Fitzpatrick N, Pozzi A.
Journal: Vet Surg

OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate the effects of antebrachial rotation at 3 elbow flexion angles on contact mechanics and 3-dimensional (3D) alignment of normal dog elbows.
STUDY DESIGN:
Ex vivo biomechanical study.
ANIMALS:
Unpaired thoracic limbs from 18 dogs (mean ± SD weight, 27 ± 4 kg).
METHODS:

Authors: Streubel R, Geyer H, Montavon PM.
Journal: Vet Surg

OBJECTIVE:
To describe medial humeral epicondylitis in cats based on radiographic, anatomic, and histologic observations.
STUDY DESIGN:
Prospective cohort study.
ANIMALS:
Feline cadavers (n = 60).
METHODS:

Authors: de Bakker E, Saunders J, Gielen I, van Bree H, Coppieters E, Van Ryssen B.
Journal: VCOT

Objectives: To determine the frequency and radiographic aspect of medial humeral epicondylar lesions as a primary or concomitant finding and to evaluate the association with osteoarthritis. Methods: Medical records of dogs diagnosed with elbow lameness were reviewed. Inclusion criteria for this study were a complete clinical examination, a complete set of digital radiographs and a final diagnosis made by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy.

Authors: Allen MJ.
Journal: JSAP

Total joint replacement is now considered a routine surgical option for small animals with advanced joint disease. This review highlights the current state of the art in total hip, elbow and knee replacement in small animals, as well as the potential for application to other joints such as the intervertebral discs, hock and shoulder. Advances in cementless fixation, the use of less-invasive, bone-sparing procedures, and the development of custom implant options for revision surgery and oncologic reconstruction will be discussed.

Authors: Milgram J, Hod N, Benzioni H.
Journal: Vet Surg

OBJECTIVE:
To determine if normograde and retrograde pinning of the distal humeral fragment, to maximize pin purchase in this fragment, would damage vital structures in and around the elbow and shoulder joints in dogs.
STUDY DESIGN:
Anatomic study.
SAMPLE POPULATION:
Cadaveric dogs (n = 12; 12 thoracic limb pairs).
METHODS:

Authors: Rochereau P, Diop A, Maurel N, Bernarde A.
Journal: Vet Surg

OBJECTIVE:
To compare biomechanical properties of a humeral condylar fracture model stabilized either with a 4.0-mm short-threaded cancellous screw (CCS) or with a 4.0-mm short-threaded cannulated screw (CNS).
STUDY DESIGN:
In vitro biomechanical study.
SAMPLE POPULATION:
Bilateral cadaveric canine humeri (n = 20).
METHODS:

Authors: Cohen L, Israeli I, Levi S, Benzioni H, Milgram J.
Journal: Vet Surg

OBJECTIVE:
To determine if normograde and retrograde pinning of the distal humeral fragment, performed to maximize pin purchase in this fragment, would damage vital structures in and around the elbow and shoulder joints in cats.
STUDY DESIGN:
Anatomic study.
SAMPLE POPULATION:
Cadaveric cats (n = 12; 24 thoracic limbs).
METHODS:

Authors: Van Vynckt D, Verhoeven G, Saunders J, Polis I, Samoy Y, Verschooten F, Van Ryssen B.
Journal: VCOT

Objective: Assessment of the effect of intra-articular anaesthesia on lameness caused by medial coronoid disease. Methods: This study included 90 dogs that were evaluated for the complaint of unilateral forelimb lameness. All dogs were suspected of having an elbow problem for which orthopaedic examination and radiographs showed inconclusive findings. Following a short sedation, mepivacaine was injected intra-articularly to determine whether lameness was caused by a suspected elbow problem. This effect was compared with the final diagnosis based on computed tomography and arthroscopy.