Distal Extremities

Authors: Cappellari F1, Piras L, Panichi E, Ferretti A, Peirone B.
Journal: Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol

Objective: To evaluate the outcome of treatment of antebrachial and crural septic non-union fractures in dogs using circular external skeletal fixation (CESF), and to document the type and frequency of complications associated with this technique. Methods: The medical records of all dogs with infected antebrachial and crural non-union fractures treated using the methods of Ilizarov at the Department of Animal Pathology of the University of Turin between 2006 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed.

Authors: Mostafa AA1, Griffon DJ, Thomas MW, Constable PD.
Journal: Vet Surg

OBJECTIVES:

To (1) develop a technique to determine the anteversion angle (AA) of the femur on a single radiograph; (2) determine the correlation between this technique and other published radiographic and computed tomographic (CT) methods; and (3) compare the diagnostic outcome of these methods in determining the level at which femoral torsion occurred in Labrador Retrievers with cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) deficiency.

STUDY DESIGN:

Cross-sectional clinical study.

ANIMALS:

Authors: Wood MC1, Fox DB, Tomlinson JL.
Journal: Vet Surg

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To describe a radiographic method for determination of the mechanical axes and joint orientation lines in orthogonal planes for the canine humerus and establish a range of normal joint orientation angles in a population of large breed dogs.

STUDY DESIGN:

Radiographic study.

SAMPLE POPULATION:

Humeri (n = 50) of skeletally mature, nonchondrodystrophic canine cadavers, weighing 20-40 kg with no evidence of orthopedic disease.

METHODS:

Authors: Macrì F1, Ciotola F, Rapisarda G, Lanteri G, Albarella S, Aiudi G, Liotta L, Marino F.
Journal: JSAP

A case of non-syndromic, complete syndactyly involving all four limbs is described in a three-month-old male crossbreed dog for the first time.Syndactyly is a rare condition in most animal species, in dogs it has been infrequently reported. Findings of clinical, radiographic and cytogenetic analyses are described and demonstrate probably for the first time that numerical and structural chromosome aberrations are not involved in the pathogenesis of this case of syndactyly.

Authors: de Bakker E, Gielen I, Kromhout K, van Bree H, Van Ryssen B.
Journal: Vet Radiol Ultrasound

Flexor enthesopathy is a recently recognized elbow disorder in dogs and considered to be an important differential diagnosis for elbow lameness. Primary and concomitant forms of the disease have been previously described and treatments differ for the two forms. The goal of this prospective study was to compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings for dogs with primary flexor enthesopathy (n = 17), concomitant flexor enthesopathy (n = 23), elbow dysplasia alone (n = 13), and normal elbows (n = 7). Each elbow joint underwent MRI using the same low-field scanner.

Authors: Kornmayer M, Failing K, Matis U.
Journal: VCOT

Objectives: Lameness after metacarpal and metatarsal fractures in dogs is reported to occur with an incidence of 18% to 70%. On the basis of long-term results, the prognosis of these injuries was re-evaluated retrospectively. Methods: Medical records of 100 dogs with complete clinical and radiographic follow-up examinations after an average of four years (4 months - 14 years) were evaluated. According to their treatment, patients were allocated to three groups (Group 1 = conservative, Group 2 = surgical, Group 3 = combined).

Authors: Maki LC, Kim SE, Winter MD, Kow KY, Conway JA, Lewis DD.
Journal: JAVMA

Case Description-A 10-year-old spayed female Jack Russell Terrier and a 7-year-old neutered male mixed-breed dog were evaluated because of acute, progressive, unilateral forelimb lameness associated with signs of pain and turgid antebrachial swelling. Clinical Findings-For either dog, there were no salient pathological or diagnostic imaging abnormalities. A diagnosis of compartment syndrome was confirmed on the basis of high caudal antebrachial compartmental pressure in the affected forelimb. Treatment and Outcome-Both dogs underwent surgical exploration of the affected forelimb.

Authors: Coggeshall JD, Reese DJ, Kim SE, Pozzi A.
Journal: JSAP

Four skeletally immature, small breed dogs (five elbows) with elbow incongruency were evaluated for forelimb lameness. Findings on clinical examination included pain, effusion and decreased range of motion of the affected elbow. Radiography, computed tomography and arthroscopy demonstrated elbow incongruency in all dogs. Fragmented medial coronoid process was diagnosed arthroscopically in three dogs (four elbows). Arthroscopic subtotal coronoidectomy was performed in all cases of fragmented medial coronoid process.

Authors: de Bakker E, Gielen I, van Caelenberg A, van Bree H, van Ryssen B.
Journal: Vet Radiol Ultrasound

Flexor enthesopathy is an important differential diagnosis for elbow lameness in dogs. The disorder can be a primary cause of elbow lameness or concomitant with other elbow pathology. Since treatment differs for primary and concomitant forms of flexor enthesopathy, a noninvasive method for distinguishing between them is needed.

Authors: Bitton E, Joseph R, Portman L, Segev G, Meiner Y, Shipov A, Milgram J.
Journal: Vet Surg

OBJECTIVE:
To describe the direction and magnitude of the rotation of the radius relative to the ulna during extension of the carpus and to describe the effect of carpal extension on internal and external rotation of the radius relative to the ulna.
STUDY DESIGN:
In vitro experiment.
ANIMALS:
Cadaveric canine thoracic limbs (n = 11).
METHODS: