Tibial anatomy in normal small breed dogs including anisometry of various extracapsular stabilizing suture attachment sites

Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2015 Sep 14; 28 (5): 331-8.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate proximal tibial anatomy and its influence on anisometry of extracapsular stabilizing sutures in small dog breeds.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mediolateral radiographs of the femora, stifles, and tibiae of 12 small breed dogs were acquired with the stifles positioned at various angles. Measurements taken included tibial plateau angle (TPA), diaphyseal: proximal tibial angle (DPA), patellar tendon angle (PTA), Z-angle, relative tibial tuberosity width (rTTW), and the distance between six combinations of two femoral and three tibial extra-capsular stabilizing suture (ECS) attachment sites. Theoretical strain through stifle range-of-motion was recorded.

RESULTS: The TPA (32° ± 5.8°), DPA (10.2° ± 7.3°), PTA (103.7° ± 6.2°), and Z-angle (70.4° ± 9.0°) were positively correlated with one another (R >0.7), but none were correlated with rTTW (0.93 ±0.10). The F2-T1 combination of ECS attachment sites had lowest strain for nine stifles. The shortest attachment site separation was at a stifle flexion of 50° for nine stifles. Proximal tibial anatomy measurements could not predict optimal attachment site combination, optimal stifle angle for suture placement, or ECS strain.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: There is individual variation in the optimal attachment site combination and stifle angle for suture placement, which may influence consistency of outcomes with ECS.

Small animal: