Differences of Curing Effects between a Human and Veterinary Bone Cement

Authors: 
Kallol KMZ, Motalab M, Parvej MS, Konari PR, Barghouthi H, Khandaker M.
Materials (Basel). 2019 Feb 3;12(3). pii: E470. doi: 10.3390/ma12030470.

The goal of the study is to understand how the curing characteristics of a human bone cement (HBC) and veterinary bone cement (VBC) influence the mechanical behavior of each cement and cement bonding with an implant. This study hypothesizes that the curing temperature and time influence the mechanical properties of the cement adjacent to the implant, which resulted in the variability in bonding strength between the implant and cement. To test this hypothesis, this study measured the exothermic temperature, flexural strength, hardness, and morphology of a HBC and VBC at different curing times. In addition, this study measured shear strength at the interfaces of implant/HBC and implant/VBC samples during static and stepwise cyclic tests at different curing times. This study used Stryker Simplex P and BioMedtrix 3 poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) as an HBC and VBC, respectively. This study cured HBC and VBC cement for 30 and 60 min and then conducted flexural, hardness, and interface fracture tests to evaluate the curing effect on mechanical behavior of each of the cements. This study found that the curing time significantly increases the values of flexure and hardness properties of each cement and shear strength of implant/HBC and implant/VBC (p < 0.05). This study observed a difference of curing time and temperature between HBC and VBC. This study also observed a significant difference of surface porosity at the interface of implant/HBC and implant/VBC interfaces. The variability of mechanical properties between HBC and VBC due to the differences of curing conditions may influence the bonding of cement with the implant.

KEYWORDS: PMMA cement; exothermic temperature; mechanical properties; orthopedics; titanium