Arthroscopic-Assisted Toggle Rod Stabilization in Canine Coxofemoral Luxation: A Cadaveric Study

Rachel E Rivenburg, Sean M Murphy, Ciaran T Jones, Kyle W Martin
Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2022 Jul 19. doi: 10.1055/s-0042-1748880.

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe an arthroscopic-assisted technique for coxofemoral toggle rod placement, and to report on the feasibility, drill tunnel trajectory and accuracy of tunnel aperture location using this method.

Study design: Cadaveric pilot study.

Sample population: Eight coxofemoral joints.

Methods: Craniodorsal coxofemoral joint luxations were artificially created. A simulated open hip reduction and stabilization with a toggle rod were performed through a limited arthrotomy under arthroscopic guidance. Computed tomography scans were performed to evaluate drill hole trajectory across the femoral neck, and joints were disarticulated and photographed. Digital imaging software was used to determine the percent overlap of the drill hole apertures relative to the origin and insertion of the round ligament on the acetabulum and fovea.

Results: The exit point of the tunnel was entirely within the fovea capitis in five of eight femurs, three of eight femoral drill apertures were only partially within the target area. Of the eight acetabular bone tunnels examined, all were centred occupying the acetabular fossa.

Conclusions: Coxofemoral toggle rod placement can be performed under arthroscopic guidance through a limited arthrotomy. Comparable femoral tunnel accuracy with the standard open technique should be achieved with the current method prior to its clinical use.