Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is the most commonly used filler material that lacks biological properties and osteoconductivity or osteoinductivity. Platelet gel (PG) is a typical source of growth factors, cytokines and molecules efficient for bone formation and remodeling.
The aim of this study was to evaluate bone healing and regeneration of bone defect in rat model by combining PMMA with PG.
A total of 50 defects were created in the diaphysis of the radii of 25 male Sprague-Dawley rats. These defects were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10 defects for each group) and treated by autograft, plain PMMA, PG and PMMA-PG or left untreated. The rats were examined clinically and radiologically during the experiment and also after euthanasia at the 8th post-operative week, the healed defects were evaluated by gross morphology, histopathology, histomorphometry, computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy and biomechanical testing.
PG could function as efficiently as autograft in promoting bone healing of the radial bones. Additionally, bone formation, and densities of cartilaginous and osseous tissues in the defects treated with autograft, PG and PMMA-PG were more satisfactory than the untreated and PMMA treated defects. Compared with the PMMA-PG implant, more PMMA residuals remained in the defect area and induced more intense inflammatory reaction.
In conclusion, addition of PG could improve the bone regenerative properties of PMMA bone cement compared with PMMA alone in vivo. Therefore, the PG-PMMA can be proposed as a promising option to increase regenerative potential of PMMA, particularly when it is used as fixator, filler or adhesive in the dentistry, neurosurgery and bone tissue engineering applications.